What is an MLA Works Cited page? 

A Works Cited page is a formatted list of all sources you cited within your paper. Any time you quote, paraphrase, summarize, or include information that you’ve read from an outside source, you must include that source in your references list, correctly formatted in MLA style.

To see how to format an APA References List or a Chicago Style Bibliography, see these guides.

What information goes on an MLA Works Cited page?

Each source requires general publication information, including but not limited to:

  • Author’s name.
  • Title of text.
  • Title of container*,
  • Other editors, translators, and contributors,
  • Version,
  • Number (No.),
  • Publication or publisher,
  • Date of publication,
  • DOI or URL of the source.

*Container is defined as the larger publication in which the text is published. For example, if citing a newspaper article, the container is the newspaper itself; if citing an article from a journal, the journal is the container.

 Because so much of our modern research is online, publications are frequently updated and revised. Therefore, if it would be useful, you have the option of including Date of Access to account for differences over time.  

What are the key rules of creating a Works Cited page?

There are unique formatting rules to follow for each type of entry, but generally, remember these key rules for the whole page:

  • Center the words “Works Cited” at the top of the new page. The page should have your last name and the next page number in the header, as on all the other essay pages.
  • Double space every line—no additional spacing required.
  • Alphabetize entries by authors’ last names. If author names are unavailable for an entry, alphabetize by the first letter in the title (other than A, An, or The).
  • Create a hanging indent for each individual source you add to the list. A hanging indent is where the second and all the following lines of a paragraph are indented more than the first. To make a hanging indent, highlight your citation and use the keyboard shortcut CTRL+T.

Works Cited Page Examples

Expand the options below for help formatting your references list entries in MLA format.

Online Journal Article with DOI or URL
Structure

Author's Last Name, First name. “Title of article.” Title of  Journal, vol., no. (issue), date of publication, pp. (if available). Database Name, DOI or URL.

For Example

Florian, Razvan. “Challenges for Interactivist–Constructivist Robotics.” New Ideas in Psychology, vol. 28, no. 3, 2010, pp. 350–353. JSTOR, doi:10.1016/j.newideapsych.2009.09.009.

Online Newspaper Article
Structure

Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Article.” Name of Newspaper, Publication Date, p. (if available), URL.

For Example

Casselman, Ben and Conor Dougherty. “Want a House Like This? Prepare for a War with Investors.” New York Times, 20 June 2019, www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/06/20/business/economy/starter-homes-investors.html?action=click&module=Top%20Stories&pgtype=Homepage.

Digital Book or e-Book
Structure

Author’s Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. E-book, publisher, publication year, DOI or URL (if available).

For Example

Bender, Tisha. Discussion-Based Online Teaching to Enhance Student Learning: Theory, Practice, and Assessment. E-book, Stylus, 2003, doi: 378.1/7344678.

Wallace, B. Alan. The Attention Revolution. E-book, Wisdom Publications, 2006.

Specific Type of e-Book (Kindle, Nook, e.g.)
Structure

Author’s Last Name, First name. Title of Book, editor or translator (if necessary), (Kindle/Nook) ed., publisher, year.

For Example

Camus, Albert. The Stranger, translated by Matthew Ward, Kindle ed., Vintage, 2012.

Book (Print)
Structure

Author’s Last Name, First Name. Title of book. City*, Publisher, Publication Date.

*City is only cited if book is published before 1900 or if publisher has multiple offices worldwide.

For Example

Diaz–Rico, Lynne T. A Course for Teaching English Learners. Pearson, 2008.

Chapter in Edited Book
Structure

Author’s Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Edited by FirstName LastName, publisher, year, page range of chapter.

For Example

Zhang, Li-fang and Robert Sternberg. Perspectives o Thinking, Learning, and Cognitive Styles. Edited by Vibeke Aukrust, Elsevier, 2010, pp. 16-22.

Web Page with an Author
Structure

Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of web page.” Title of website, URL.

For Example

Lad, Kashmira. “An Overview of the Colorful Traditional Mexican Clothing.” Buzzle, 22 Mar. 2018, www.buzzle.com/articles/traditional -mexican-clothing.html.

Web Page with No Author
Structure

“Title of Article.” Title of website, date of publication, URL.

For Example

U.S. Department of Labor. “Police and Detectives.” Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2008, bls.gov/oco/pdf/ocos160.pdf.

If you can’t find an individual author but you can find an organization or group that is responsible for the content of a web page, then treat the entity as the author.
Web Page with No Author or Organization
Structure

“Title of web page.” Title of website (if different), publication year, URL.

For Example

“Freud’s Structural Theory: The Id, the Ego, and the Superego." www.vakkur.com/psy/freud.html.

Blog Post
Structure

Author’s Last Name, First Name (or, in some cases, screen name, editor, etc). “Title of Post.” Name of website, version or date of post, name of organization (if different), URL.

For Example

Davis, Vicki. “Treat people with dignity and respect: Who will be the people to bridge racial and cultural distrust?” The Cool Cat Teacher Blog, 6 December 2016, www.coolcatteacher.com/treat-people-with-dignity-respect/.

Classroom Communications-Instructor Guidance
Structure

Author Last Name, First Name. “Title of Lecture, Speech” (if any). Class title, date, location (including venue and city). Descriptor, URL (if necessary).

For Example

Thomas, Joseph. “The Songs of Shel Silverstein.” ENGL 626, 6 November 2016, Hepner Hall, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA. Lecture.

Salomon, Willis. “Shakespeare’s Dark Lady.” ENGL 410, San Antonio, TX. Lecture, blackboard.trinity.edu.

Because courses are often not accessible without a password, include this main URL for the homepage instead.
Classroom Communications-Discussion Board Post
Structure

Author Last Name, First Name. “Title of Comment” (if different than thread). Comment on “Name of discussion thread,” Organization/class, date of posting, time of posting, URL.

For Example

Cooper, Dougie. “Not the Right Ring.” Comment on “Most Intriguing Part of Chapter 8,” BIO 201, 6 November 2016, 4:15 pm, login.ucla.edu.

Because courses are not accessible without a password, include the main URL for the classroom homepage instead.
Video
Structure

There are two similar ways to cite videos. It depends on whether you want to highlight the video itself or the creators.

If you want to highlight the video/film, you would begin with the title of the video, list the director, and then include performers if it is relevant:

Title of motion picture/film. Directed by First Name Last Name, performances by First Name Last Name, Studio Name, Year.

For Example

Memento. Directed by Christopher Nolan, performance by Guy Pearce, Newmarket Capital Group, 2001.

Structure

If you want to highlight the director, producer, writers, or other stakeholders, you would begin with the their name(s), then proceed with the title of the video and other relevant information:

Last Name, First Name, director/writer/producer. Title of motion picture/film. Studio, Year.

For Example

Nolan Christopher, director. Memento. Newmarket Capital Group, 2001.

Youtube Video
Structure

If author is different from the uploader:

Author Last Name, First Name. “Title of Video.” YouTube, uploaded by [Screen name], date, URL.

If author and uploader are the same OR if there is no clear author:

“Title of Video.” YouTube, uploaded by [Screen name], date, URL.

For Example

“5 tips to improve your writing.” YouTube, uploaded by EnglishTeacherEmma, 30 January 2013, www.youtube.com/watch?v=GgkRoYPLhts.

Television Series or Episode
Structure

“Title of Episode.” Title of Series, season X, episode X, network, original air date. Access app (if Netflix, Hulu, or other streaming site), URL (if available).

For Example

“The Lip Reader.” Seinfeld, season 5, episode 6, NBC, 28 October 1993.

Music Recording
Structure

Artist Name. “Song Title.” Album Title, Label, Year. Site of Access, URL (if accessed online).

For Example

Brooks, Garth. “Friends in Low Places.” No Fences, Capitol Nashville, 1989. Spotify, open.spotify.com/track/xxxxxxxxxx.

Podcast
Structure

“Title of Episode.” Title of podcast from Organization/Producer, Publication Date, URL (if available).

For Example

“The Satire Paradox.” Revisionist History by Malcolm Gladwell, 18 August 2016, revisionisthistory.com/episodes/10-the-satire-paradox.

Image with an Author
Structure

Artist’s Last Name, First Name. Title of image, date of creation, institution, city. Name of web site, URL.

For Example

Sijgers, Henrik. Sidewalk, 2014. Flickr, farm6.staticflickr.com/5024/5691941274_0819b1e5a3.jpg.

Note about copyright laws: As long as there is no intention of publication, a student can use images in a course paper without obtaining written permission. There are copyright laws for using questionnaires, surveys, or other materials from a published source that is not public domain, so be sure to refer to the rules if you have questions about whether or not you can reprint any materials.
Image with No Author
Structure

Title of piece. Date of creation. Name of web site, URL.

For Example

Flu epidemic, 1919. History.com, www.history.net/photo/flu-epidemic-art/collections.

For information on citing legal materials, see our Citing Legal Sources page.

Conference Paper Presentation
Structure

Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Conference Paper Title.” Conference Title that Includes Date and Location, edited by Conference Editor(s). Publisher. Date of Publication.

For Example

Fraenza, Christy and L. Nagle. “The Use of Plickers to Increase Student Achievement and Engagement: An Informal Implementation.” Teaching of Psychology Conference in March 2015 at Farmingdale, NY.

Dissertation From a Database
Structure

Author’s Last Name, First Name. Title of dissertation (Doctoral dissertation). Database name, date of publication, URL (if available).

For Example

Hoy, C. A. The adult learner in the online writing course. Proquest Digital Dissertations, 2010.