For some papers and reports, you may choose to add a table, graph, chart, or image within the body of the draft. Or you may choose to include an appendix at the end of your paper. These can help to provide a visual representation of data or other information that you wish to relay to your reader. Follow the guidance below to understand when and how to use these features.
When do I use a table?
Use a table, chart, or graph when you are dealing with complex numerical data that requires precise values.
How do I incorporate a table into my paper?
Tables and graphs can be created on your own in Microsoft Word, or you can copy a table or graph from a source. An image or drawing can be copied and pasted from a source. Either way, you will need to format and cite your table, graph, or image in APA style.
How do I format a table in APA style?
Follow these directions to format and cite your table in APA style:
- Label and number the table.
- Example: Table 1
- Give it a descriptive title in italics on the line after the table number.
- Example: Regression Model with IP Score as the Criterion Variable
- Include all necessary information in the table so the reader can easily understand the data.
- Include a “Note.” on the line under the table. Your note should include:
- any additional information needed to understand the table
- a full reference citation if it was obtained from a source
- You should always refer to the table by its label within the text of your paper—don’t simply insert a table alone.
- Example: “The statistics on the percentage of animals for science that suffer can be seen in Table 3.”
Example of a Properly Formatted Table:
When do I use a graph or an image?
Use an image when you need to show your reader a specific object, structure, or drawing that you are discussing in your paper. Images and graphs are often called "figures" in APA formatting.
How do I incorporate a figure into my paper?
An image or drawing can be copied and pasted from a source.
How do I format a figure in APA style?
Follow these directions to format and cite your figure, image, or graph in APA style:
- Number the graph, image, or drawing, and label it as Figure in italics on a line under the image itself.
- Give it a descriptive title following the label and number.
- Figure 1. Ocean currents showing why garbage is collecting in the area of the Pacific Ocean known as the Great Pacific Garbage Patch
- Include a full reference citation of where the image or graph was obtained from following the title of the figure.
- You should always refer to the graph or image by its label within the text of your paper—don’t simply insert a figure alone.
- Example: “Figure 2 provides an example of this culture’s ceremonial practices in action.”
Example of a Properly Formatted Figure:
What is an Appendix?
An appendix is a page that is included at the end of your paper to include additional information for your reader. You might choose to use an appendix to include detailed information that is distracting if placed in the body of the paper. For example, this could be a questionnaire you used for interviewing research participants, a survey used, or a list of materials used for a project.
How do I include an Appendix?
The appendix should be included as a separate page at the end of your paper, after your references page. You can have a single appendix, or more than one. If you have multiple items, such as multiple questionnaires for research participants, create a separate appendix for each item. An appendix can contain textual information and/or visual information. If you feel that any tables, graphs, or images are too bulky or too distracting for the body of your paper, you can place these in an appendix. Any appendix should be formatted according to these APA standards:
- An appendix must be labeled as Appendix. This should be centered on the page and in bold font. If you have more than one appendix, label them Appendix A, Appendix B, and so on.
- If you have more than one appendix, these should be organized so that the first appendix mentioned in your paper is Appendix A, the second one mentioned in your paper is Appendix B, and so on.
- If there is anything in the appendix that was obtained from a source, cite that source with a full reference citation and be sure to include that source in your references list.
- Copyright laws: As long as there is no intention of publication, a student can use tables/figures in a course paper without getting written permission. There are copyright laws for using questionnaires, surveys, or other materials from a published source that is not public domain, so be sure to refer to the rules if you have questions about whether or not you can reprint any materials.
- You should always refer to the appendix by its label within the text of your paper—don’t simply insert an appendix alone. For example: “For the full list of materials used for this project, see Appendix B.”
Example of an Appendix: